Document





UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 8-K
 
Current Report
Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported):  October 2, 2017
 
OPIANT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Delaware
 
001-38193
 
46-4744124
(State or other jurisdiction of 
incorporation) 
 
(Commission File Number

 
(IRS Employer Identification No.) 




 


201 Santa Monica Boulevard, Suite 500
Santa Monica, CA
 

90401
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) 

 
(Zip Cope)

 
310-598-5410
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

 
 
(Former name or former address if changed since last report,)

 
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:
¨ Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

¨ Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

¨ Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

¨ Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))
 



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).
 
Emerging growth company ¨
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨






Item 1.01
Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement.

On October 2, 2017, Opiant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Opiant DE” or, after giving effect to the Reincorporation Merger (defined below), the “Company”), entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with Opiant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Nevada corporation and then parent company of the Company (“Opiant NV”), pursuant to which Opiant NV would merge with and into Opiant DE for the sole purpose of reincorporating Opiant NV in the State of Delaware (the “Reincorporation Merger”). The Reincorporation Merger and the Merger Agreement were approved by the Board of Directors and sole stockholder of Opiant DE, and by the Board of Directors and a majority of stockholders of Opiant NV. The Reincorporation Merger is intended to qualify for federal income tax purposes as a tax-free reorganization under the provisions of Section 368(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

The description of the Merger Agreement set forth above does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Merger Agreement, a copy of which is filed by the Company as Exhibit 2.1 to this Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 3.03
Material Modification to Rights of Security Holders

At 5:30 p.m. EST on October 2, 2017 (the “Effective Time”), Opiant DE and Opiant NV effected the Reincorporation Merger, thereby changing the state of incorporation of the Company from the State of Nevada to the State of Delaware pursuant to the Merger Agreement. The Reincorporation Merger was accomplished by the filing of (i) articles of merger with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada (the “Nevada Articles of Merger”) and (ii) a certificate of merger (the “Delaware Certificate of Merger”) and the amended and restated certificate of incorporation of the Company (the “Amended and Restated Charter”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the bylaws of Opiant DE are the bylaws of the Company following the Reincorporation Merger (the “Bylaws”). The description of the Nevada Articles of Merger, the Delaware Certificate of Merger, the Amended and Restated Charter and the Bylaws set forth above does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Nevada Articles of Merger, the Delaware Certificate of Merger, the Amended and Restated Charter and the Bylaws attached as Exhibits 3(i).2, 3(i).3, 3(i).4 and 3(ii).1, respectively, to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.

Upon the Effective Time (i) Opiant NV merged with and into Opiant DE, (ii) the separate corporate existence of Opiant NV ceased to exist, (iii) Opiant DE (now the “Company”) is the surviving corporation of the Reincorporation Merger, (iv) each share of common stock of Opiant NV, $0.001 par value per share (the “NV Common Stock”), outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time was converted into one fully-paid and non-assessable share of common stock of the Company, $0.001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), and (v) in lieu of any fractional shares to which a holder of the Company’s Common Stock would have been entitled following the Effective Time, such fractional share was automatically rounded up to the next whole share. A specimen Common Stock certificate of Opiant DE is attached as Exhibit 4.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.

As a result of the Reincorporation Merger, the Company’s affairs ceased to be governed by the Nevada Revised Statutes, and became subject to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. The Reincorporation Merger did not affect any of the Company’s material contracts with any third parties, and the Company’s rights and obligations under such material contractual arrangements continue to be rights and obligations of the Company after the Reincorporation Merger. The Reincorporation Merger also did not result in any change in headquarters, business, jobs, management, location of any of the offices or facilities, number of employees, benefit plans, assets, liabilities or net worth (other than as a result of the costs incident to the Reincorporation Merger) of the Company.

Item 5.03. Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year

The information set forth under Item 3.03 of this Current Report on Form 8-K is incorporated herein by reference.






Item 8.01 Other Events.

On October 2, 2017, immediately prior to the Effective Time of the Reincorporation Merger, and pursuant to approval of a majority of its stockholders, Opiant NV (i) reduced the total number of authorized shares of the NV Common Stock from 1,000,000,000 to 200,000,000, and (ii) established a classified board of directors.

The description of the Certificate of Amendment to the Articles of Incorporation set forth above does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Certificate of Amendment to the Articles of Incorporation attached as Exhibit 3(i).1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.

Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.

(d) Exhibits.

Exhibit No.
Description
2.1
3(i).1
3(i).2
3(i).3
3(i).4
3(ii).1
4.1





SIGNATURE
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.


 
 
 
 
 
Opiant Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
 
 
Date: October 6, 2017
By:
/s/ Dr. Roger Crystal
 
 
Name: Dr. Roger Crystal
 
 
Title: Chief Executive Officer


























 

 


Exhibit



Exhibit 2.1

AGREEMENT AND PLAN OF MERGER


BETWEEN

OPIANT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
A NEVADA CORPORATION

AND

OPIANT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
A DELAWARE CORPORATION

This AGREEMENT AND PLAN OF MERGER (the “Agreement”), dated as of the 2nd day of October, 2017 is made by and between Opiant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Nevada corporation (“Opiant NV”) and Opiant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Opiant DE” also known as the “Surviving Entity”).

WITNESSETH

WHEREAS, the Board of Directors and stockholders of Opiant NV have deemed it advisable and in the best interests of the stockholders to change the domicile of Opiant NV from the State of Nevada to the State of Delaware and have incorporated Opiant DE as a wholly owned subsidiary in the State of Delaware for the purpose of merging Opiant NV with and into Opiant DE;

WHEREAS, the Board of Directors and sole stockholder of Opiant DE deems it advisable and in the best interests of Opiant DE and its sole stockholder that Opiant NV be merged with and into Opiant DE as permitted by Section 252 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware (the “Delaware Laws”) and the applicable laws of Nevada under and pursuant to the terms and conditions hereinafter set forth;
    
WHEREAS, the Board of Directors of Opiant NV deems it advisable and in the best interests of Opiant NV and its stockholders that Opiant NV be merged with and into Opiant DE as permitted by the Nevada Revised Statutes, 92A (the “Nevada Laws”) and the Delaware Laws under and pursuant to the terms and conditions hereinafter set forth;
 
WHEREAS, immediately prior to the Effective Time (as hereinafter defined), Opiant NV shall have an authorized capitalization consisting of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Opiant NV Common Stock”);

WHEREAS, immediately prior to the Effective Time (as hereinafter defined), Opiant DE shall have an authorized capitalization consisting of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Opiant DE Common Stock”);

WHEREAS, the stockholders and directors of Opiant NV and the stockholder and directors of Opiant DE have duly approved this Agreement.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the mutual agreements and covenants herein contained and in accordance with the applicable provisions of the applicable Delaware Laws and the applicable Nevada Laws, the parties hereto have agreed and covenanted, and do hereby agree and covenant as follows:

1. Terms and Conditions of Merger. At the Effective time (as hereinafter defined), Opiant NV shall be merged with and into Opiant DE pursuant to the provisions of the Delaware Laws (the “Merger”), and Opiant DE shall be the Surviving Entity.




The date and hour on which the Merger occurs and becomes effective is hereinafter referred to as the “Effective Time”. The Merger shall be effective upon the filing of the Certificate of Merger of Opiant DE with the Secretary of State of Delaware pursuant to Section 252 of Delaware Laws and the simultaneous filing of the Articles of Merger of Opiant NV with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada pursuant to Section 92A.200 of Nevada Laws which shall take place at some time following the approval of this Agreement by the stockholder and directors of Opiant DE and the stockholders and directors of Opiant NV and compliance with Section 14(c) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

2. Name, Charter, Bylaws, Directors and Officers. From and after the Effective Time:

2.1 The name of the Surviving Entity shall be: Opiant Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

2.2 The current Certificate of Incorporation of Opiant DE shall be the Certificate of Incorporation of the Surviving Entity, as amended and restated in accordance with the Certificate of Merger.

2.3 The current Bylaws of Opiant DE shall be the Bylaws of the Surviving Entity.

2.4 The directors and officers of Opiant DE at the Effective Time shall be unchanged and remain the directors and officers from and after the Effective Time until the expiration of their current terms and until their successors are elected and qualify, or prior resignation, removal or death, subject to the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws of the Surviving Entity.

3. Succession. On the Effective Date, Opiant DE shall succeed Opiant NV in the manner and as more fully set forth in the Delaware Laws and specifically as follows:

(a) The separate corporate existence of Opiant NV shall cease, and the Surviving Entity shall possess all the rights, privileges, powers and franchises of a public and private nature and be subject to all the restrictions, liabilities and duties of Opiant NV;

(b) All rights, privileges, powers and franchises of Opiant NV and all property, real, personal and mixed, and all debts due to Opiant NV on whatever account, as well as for share and note subscriptions and all other things in action or belonging to Opiant NV shall be vested in the Surviving Entity;

(c) All property, rights, privileges, powers and franchises, and all and every other interest shall be thereafter as effectually the property of the Surviving Entity as they were of Opiant NV, and the title to any real estate vested by deed or otherwise, under the laws of the State of Delaware or the State of Nevada, or of any of the other states of the United States, in Opiant NV shall not revert or be in any way impaired by reason of the Merger; but all rights of creditors and all liens upon any property of Opiant NV shall be preserved unimpaired;

(d) All debts, liabilities and duties of Opiant NV shall thenceforth attach to the Surviving Entity and may be enforced against it to the same extent as if such debts, liabilities and duties had been incurred or contracted by it;

(e) All corporate acts, plans, policies, agreements, arrangements, approvals and authorizations of Opiant NV, its stockholders, Board of Directors and committees thereof, officers and agents which were valid and effective immediately prior to the Effective Time, shall be taken for all purposes as the valid and effective acts, plans, policies, agreements, arrangements, approvals and authorizations of the Surviving Entity without any further action of the Surviving Entity and shall be as effective and binding thereon as the same were with respect to Opiant NV; and

(f) At the Effective Time of the Merger, each employee benefit plan, incentive compensation plan and other similar plans to which Opiant NV is then a party shall be assumed by, and continue to be the plan of, the Surviving Entity without any further action of the Surviving Entity. To the extent any employee benefit plan, incentive compensation plan or other similar plan of Opiant NV provides for the issuance or purchase of, or otherwise relates to, Opiant NV



stock, after the Effective Time of the Merger such plan shall be deemed to provide for the issuance or purchase of, or otherwise relate to, Surviving Entity’s stock.

4. Further Assurances. From time to time, when and as required by Opiant DE or its successors and assigns, there shall be executed and delivered on behalf of Opiant NV such deeds and other instruments, and there shall be taken or caused to be taken by or on behalf of Opiant NV such further and other action, as shall be appropriate or necessary to vest, perfect or confirm, of record or otherwise in Opiant DE, the title to and possession of all the property, interests, assets, rights, privileges, immunities, powers, franchises and authority of Opiant NV, and otherwise to carry out the purposes of this Agreement, and the officers and the directors of Opiant NV are fully authorized by and on behalf of Opiant NV to take any and all such action to execute and deliver any and all such deeds and other instruments.

5. Stock and Stock Certificates. At the Effective Time, by virtue of the Merger and without any action on the part of the holder thereof;

(a) each one (1) share of Opiant NV Common Stock outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time shall by virtue of the Merger and without any action on the part of the holder thereof, be converted into one (1) share of fully-paid and non-assessable shares Opiant DE Common Stock.

(b) all of the outstanding shares of Opiant DE Common Stock which shares are held by Opiant NV shall be automatically cancelled.

(c) Each share of Opiant NV Common Stock, if any, held in treasury immediately prior to the Effective Time shall be cancelled and no shares of other securities of the Surviving Entity shall be issued in respect thereof.
 
(d) All of the options and warrants to acquire, or instruments convertible into, shares of Opiant NV Common Stock held by any person shall, by virtue of the Merger and without any action on the part of the holder thereof, be converted, share for share, into options and warrants, or convertible instruments, respectively, of the Surviving Entity.

(e) From and after the Effective Time, all of the outstanding certificates which immediately prior to the Effective Time represented shares of Opiant NV Common Stock shall be deemed for all purposes to evidence ownership of, and to represent, shares of Opiant DE Common Stock into which such shares have been converted as herein provided. The registered owner on the books and records of Opiant NV of any such outstanding stock certificates shall, until such certificates shall have been surrendered for transfer or otherwise accounted for to the Surviving Entity, have and be able to exercise any voting and other rights with respect to and receive any dividend or other distributions upon the Opiant DE Common Stock evidenced by such outstanding certificates as provided.

6. Amendment and Termination. Subject to applicable law, this Agreement may be amended by written agreement of the parties hereto at any time prior to the Effective Time. Subject to applicable law, this Agreement may be terminated by the Board of Directors of Opiant DE or the Board of Directors of Opiant NV at any time prior to the Effective Time.

7. Miscellaneous. For the convenience of the parties and to facilitate any filing and recording of this Agreement, any number of counterparts hereof may be executed each of which shall be deemed to be an original of this Agreement but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument.


[Remainder of page intentionally left blank; signature page follows]



IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties to this Agreement, pursuant to the approval and authority duly given by resolutions adopted by their respective Board of Directors have caused this Agreement to be executed by the Chief Executive Officer as of the day and year first above written.



 
 
 
 
 
SURVIVING ENTITY:
 
OPIANT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.


 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Dr. Roger Crystal
 
 
 
 
Dr. Roger Crystal
Chief Executive Officer and Director
 
 
 
 



OPIANT NV:







OPIANT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.


 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Dr. Roger Crystal
 
 
 
 
Dr. Roger Crystal
Chief Executive Officer and Director


exhibit3i1certificateofa


 


 


 


 


 
Exhibit



Exhibit 3(ii).1

BYLAWS OF

OPIANT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
ARTICLE I
STOCKHOLDERS
1.1 Place of Meetings. All meetings of stockholders shall be held at such place (if any) within or without the State of Delaware as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors or, if not determined by the Board of Directors, by the Chairman of the Board, the President or the Chief Executive Officer; provided that the Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that any meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place but shall be held solely by means of remote communication in accordance with Section 1.13.
1.2 Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of stockholders for the election of directors and for the transaction of such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting shall be held on a date to be fixed by the Board of Directors at a time to be fixed by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting.
1.3 Special Meetings. Special meetings of stockholders may be called at any time by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer, for any purpose or purposes prescribed in the notice of the meeting and shall be held on such date and at such time as the Board may fix. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be confined to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice of meeting.
1.4 Notice of Meetings.
(a) Written notice of each meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date on which the meeting is to be held, to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date fixed by the Board of Directors for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, except as otherwise provided herein or as required by law (meaning here and hereafter, as required from time to time by the Delaware General Corporation Law or the Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation). The notice of any meeting shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting. The notice of a special meeting shall state, in addition, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.
(b) Notice to stockholders may be given by personal delivery, mail, or, with the consent of the stockholder entitled to receive notice, by facsimile or other means of electronic transmission. If mailed, such notice shall be delivered by postage prepaid envelope directed to each stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears in the records of the corporation and shall be deemed given when deposited in the United States mail. Notice given by electronic transmission pursuant to this subsection shall be deemed given: (1) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a facsimile telecommunication number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (2) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (3) if by posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and (4) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder. An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the corporation that the notice has been given by personal delivery, by mail, or by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
(c) Notice of any meeting of stockholders need not be given to any stockholder if waived by such stockholder either in a writing signed by such stockholder or by electronic transmission, whether such waiver is given before or after such meeting is held. If such a waiver is given by electronic transmission, the electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the electronic transmission was authorized by the stockholder.
1.5 Voting List. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall prepare, at least ten (10) days before each meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting; the



list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth day before the meeting date, arranged in alphabetical order for each class of stock and showing the mailing address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting: (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, (b) during ordinary business hours at the principal place of business of the corporation or (c) in any other manner provided by law. If the meeting is to be held at a place, the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time of the meeting, and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, such list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. The stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to the stockholders who are entitled to examine the list required by this Section 1.5 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.
1.6 Quorum. Except as otherwise provided by law or these Bylaws, the holders of a majority of the shares of the capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. Where a separate class vote by a class or classes or series is required, a majority of the shares of such class or classes or series present in person or represented by proxy shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter.
1.7 Adjournments. Any meeting of stockholders may be adjourned to any other time and to any other place at which a meeting of stockholders may be held under these Bylaws by the chairman of the meeting or, in the absence of such person, by any officer entitled to preside at or to act as secretary of such meeting, or by the holders of a majority of the shares of stock present or represented at the meeting and entitled to vote, although less than a quorum. When a meeting is adjourned to another place, date or time, written notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the date, time and place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting, are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken; provided, however, that if the date of any adjourned meeting is more than 30 days after the date for which the meeting was originally noticed, or if the Board of Directors fixes a new record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting in accordance with Section 4.5, written notice of the place, if any, date and time of the adjourned meeting and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting, shall be given in conformity herewith. At the adjourned meeting, the corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting.
1.8 Voting and Proxies. Each stockholder shall have one vote for each share of stock entitled to vote held of record by such stockholder and a proportionate vote for each fractional share so held, unless otherwise provided by law or in the Certificate of Incorporation. Each stockholder of record entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may vote in person or may authorize any other person or persons to vote or act for such stockholder by a written proxy executed by the stockholder or the stockholder’s authorized agent or by an electronic transmission permitted by law and delivered to the Secretary of the corporation. Any copy, facsimile transmission or other reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission created pursuant to this section may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or electronic transmission for any and all purposes for which the original writing or transmission could be used, provided that such copy, facsimile transmission or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing or electronic transmission.
1.9 Action at Meeting.
(a) At any meeting of stockholders for the election of one or more directors at which a quorum is present, the election shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote at the election.
(b) All other matters shall be determined by a majority in voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on the matter (or if there are two or more classes of stock entitled to vote



as separate classes, then in the case of each such class, a majority of the shares of each such class present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on the matter shall decide such matter), provided that a quorum is present, except when a different vote is required by express provision of law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
(c) All voting, including on the election of directors, but excepting where otherwise required by law, may be by a voice vote; provided, that upon demand therefor by a stockholder entitled to vote or the stockholder’s proxy, a vote by ballot shall be taken. Each ballot shall state the name of the stockholder or proxy voting and such other information as may be required under the procedure established for the meeting. The corporation may, and to the extent required by law, shall, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. The corporation may designate one or more persons as an alternate inspector to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting may, and to the extent required by law, shall, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his duties, shall take and sign an oath to faithfully execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his ability.
1.10 Stockholder Business (Other Than the Election of Directors).
(a) Only such business (other than nominations for election of directors, which is governed by Section 2.17 of these Bylaws) shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before an annual meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be either (i) specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (ii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder who (A) is a stockholder of record (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such business is proposed, only if such beneficial owner is the beneficial owner of shares of the corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 1.10 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting and (C) has complied with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 1.10 as to such business. For any business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder (other than nominations for election of directors, which is governed by Section 2.17 of these Bylaws), it must be a proper matter for stockholder action under the Delaware General Corporation Law, and the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the corporation. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice shall be in writing and must be received at the corporation’s principal executive offices not later than 90 days nor earlier than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting as first specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting (without regard to any postponements or adjournments of such meeting after such notice was first sent), provided, however, that if no annual meeting was held in the previous year or the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more than thirty (30) days, or delayed (other than as a result of adjournment) by more than thirty (30) days from the anniversary of the previous year’s annual meeting, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be received not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the date on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. “Public announcement” for purposes hereof shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.17(c) of these Bylaws. In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. For business to be properly brought before a special meeting by a stockholder, the business must be limited to the purpose or purposes set forth in a request under Section 1.3.
(b) A stockholder’s notice to the Secretary of the corporation shall set forth (i) as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting and the text of the proposal or business, including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the Bylaws of the corporation, the language of the proposed amendment, and (ii) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is being made, and any of their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert therewith (each, a “Proposing Person”), (A) the name and address, as they appear on the corporation’s books, of the stockholder proposing such business and of any other Proposing Person, (B) the class or series and number of shares of the corporation which are owned beneficially and of record by the stockholder and any other Proposing Person as of the date of the notice, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the corporation in



writing within five (5) business days after the record date for voting at the meeting of the class or series and number of shares of the corporation owned beneficially and of record by the stockholder and any other Proposing Person as of the record date for voting at the meeting, (C) a representation that the stockholder intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose the business specified in the notice, (D) any material interest of the stockholder and any other Proposing Person in such business, (E) the following information regarding the ownership interests of the stockholder and any other Proposing Person which shall be supplemented in writing by the stockholder not later than ten (10) days after the record date for voting at the meeting to disclose such interests as of such record date: (1) a description of any option, warrant, convertible security, stock appreciation right, or similar right with an exercise or conversion privilege or a settlement payment or mechanism at a price related to any class or series of shares of the corporation or with a value derived in whole or in part from the value of any class or series of shares of the corporation, any derivative or synthetic arrangement having the characteristics of a long position in any class or series of shares of the corporation, or any contract, derivative, swap or other transaction or series of transactions designed to produce economic benefits and risks that correspond substantially to the ownership of any class or series of shares of the corporation, including due to the fact that the value of such contract, derivative, swap or other transaction or series of transactions is determined by reference to the price, value or volatility of any class or series of shares of the corporation, whether or not such instrument, contract or right shall be subject to settlement in the underlying class or series of shares of the corporation, through the delivery of cash or other property, or otherwise, and without regard to whether the stockholder of record or any other Proposing Person may have entered into transactions that hedge or mitigate the economic effect of such instrument, contract or right (a “Derivative Instrument”) directly or indirectly owned beneficially by such stockholder or other Proposing Person, and any other direct or indirect opportunity to profit or share in any profit derived from any increase or decrease in the value of shares of the corporation; (2) a description of any proxy, contract, arrangement, understanding, or relationship pursuant to which such stockholder or other Proposing Person has a right to vote any shares of any security of the corporation; (3) a description of any agreement, arrangement, understanding, relationship or otherwise, including any repurchase or similar so-called “stock borrowing” agreement or arrangement, engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such stockholder or other Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to mitigate loss to, reduce the economic risk (of ownership or otherwise) of any class or series of the shares of the corporation by, manage the risk of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such stockholder or other Proposing Person with respect to any class or series of the shares of the corporation, or which provides, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit or share in any profit derived from any decrease in the price or value of any class or series of the shares of the corporation (“Short Interests”); (4) a description of any rights to dividends on the shares of the corporation owned beneficially by such stockholder or other Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the corporation; (5) a description of any proportionate interest in shares of the corporation or Derivative Instruments held, directly or indirectly, by a general or limited partnership in which such stockholder or other Proposing Person is a general partner or, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns an interest in a general partner; (6) a description of any performance-related fees (other than an asset-based fee) to which such stockholder or other Proposing Person is entitled based on any increase or decrease in the value of shares of the corporation or Derivative Instruments, if any, as of the date of such notice, including, without limitation, any such interests held by members of such stockholder’s or other Proposing Person’s immediate family sharing the same household; (7) a description of any significant equity interests or any Derivative Instruments or Short Interests in any principal competitor of the corporation held by such stockholder or other Proposing Person; and (8) a description of any direct or indirect interest of such stockholder or other Proposing Person in any contract with the corporation, any affiliate of the corporation or any principal competitor of the corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), and (F) any other information relating to such stockholder or other Proposing Person, if any, that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for, as applicable, the proposal and/or for the election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. The terms “associate” and “beneficially owned” for purposes hereof shall have the meanings set forth in Section 2.17(e) of these Bylaws.
(c) Unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual meeting of stockholders to present the proposed business, such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the corporation. For purposes of this section, to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly



authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder (or a reliable reproduction or electronic transmission of the writing) delivered to the corporation prior to the making of such proposal at such meeting by such stockholder stating that such person is authorized to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders.
(d) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.10, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 1.10; provided however, that any references in this Section 1.10 to the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit any requirements applicable to proposals as to any business to be considered pursuant to this Section 1.10. Nothing in this Section 1.10 shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.
(e) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary, the notice requirements set forth in subsections (a) and (b) above shall be deemed satisfied by a stockholder if the stockholder has notified the corporation of the stockholder’s intention to present a proposal at an annual meeting in compliance with applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Exchange Act and such stockholder’s proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the corporation to solicit proxies for such annual meeting.

1.11 Conduct of Business. At every meeting of the stockholders, the Chairman of the Board, or, in his absence, the Chief Executive Officer, or, in his absence, such other person as may be appointed by the Board of Directors, shall act as chairman. The Secretary of the corporation or a person designated by the chairman of the meeting shall act as secretary of the meeting. Unless otherwise approved by the chairman of the meeting, attendance at the stockholders’ meeting is restricted to stockholders of record, persons authorized in accordance with Section 1.8 of these Bylaws to act by proxy, and officers of the corporation.
The chairman of the meeting shall call the meeting to order, establish the agenda, and conduct the business of the meeting in accordance therewith or, at the chairman’s discretion, the business of the meeting may be conducted otherwise in accordance with the wishes of the stockholders in attendance. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at the meeting shall be announced at the meeting.
The chairman shall also conduct the meeting in an orderly manner, rule on the precedence of, and procedure on, motions and other procedural matters, and exercise discretion with respect to such procedural matters with fairness and good faith toward all those entitled to take part. Without limiting the foregoing, the chairman may (a) restrict attendance at any time to bona fide stockholders of record and their proxies and other persons in attendance at the invitation of the presiding officer or Board of Directors, (b) restrict use of audio or video recording devices at the meeting, and (c) impose reasonable limits on the amount of time taken up at the meeting on discussion in general or on remarks by any one stockholder. Should any person in attendance become unruly or obstruct the meeting proceedings, the chairman shall have the power to have such person removed from the meeting. Notwithstanding anything in the Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at a meeting except in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 1.10, this Section 1.11 and Section 2.17. The chairman of the meeting, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the provisions of Section 1.10, this Section 1.11 and Section 2.17, and if he should so determine that any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance with such sections, he shall so declare to the meeting that such defective nomination or proposal shall be disregarded.
1.12 Stockholder Action Without Meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the corporation must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders of the corporation and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such stockholders.
1.13 Meetings by Remote Communication. If authorized by the Board of Directors, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board may adopt, stockholders and proxy holders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, by means of remote communication, participate in the meeting and be deemed present



in person and vote at the meeting, whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication, provided that (a) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder or proxy holder, (b) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders and proxy holders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings, and (c) if any stockholder or proxy holder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of remote communication, a record of such vote or other action shall be maintained by the corporation.

ARTICLE II
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
2.1 General Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of a Board of Directors, who may exercise all of the powers of the corporation except as otherwise provided by law or the Certificate of Incorporation. In the event of a vacancy on the Board of Directors, the remaining directors, except as otherwise provided by law, may exercise the powers of the full Board until the vacancy is filled.
2.2 Number of Directors. The number of directors of the corporation shall not be less than three (3) nor more than fifteen (15) and shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.
2.3 Classes of Directors. The Board of Directors shall be and is divided into three classes: Class I, Class II and Class III. No one class shall have more than one director more than any other class. If a fraction is contained in the quotient arrived at by dividing the designated number of directors by three, then, if such fraction is one-third, the extra director shall be a member of Class I, and if such fraction is two-thirds, one of the extra directors shall be a member of Class I and one of the extra directors shall be a member of Class II, unless otherwise provided from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.
2.4 Terms of Office. Each director shall serve for a term ending on the date of the third annual meeting following the annual meeting at which such director was elected; provided, that each initial director in Class I shall serve for a term ending on the date of the annual meeting in 2018; each initial director in Class II shall serve for a term ending on the date of the annual meeting in 2019; and each initial director in Class III shall serve for a term ending on the date of the annual meeting in 2020; and provided further, that the term of each director shall be subject to the election and qualification of his successor and to his earlier death, resignation or removal.
2.5 Allocation of Directors Among Classes in the Event of Increases or Decreases in the Number of Directors. In the event of any increases or decreases in the authorized number of directors, (i) each director then serving as such shall nevertheless continue as a director of the class of which he is a member, and (ii) the newly created or eliminated directorships resulting from such increase or decrease shall be apportioned by the Board of Directors among the three classes of directors so as to ensure that no one class has more than one director more than any other class. To the extent possible, consistent with the foregoing rule, any newly created directorships shall be added to those classes whose terms of office are to expire at the latest dates following such allocation, and any newly eliminated directorships shall be subtracted from those classes whose terms of offices are to expire at the earliest dates following such allocation, unless otherwise provided from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.
2.6 Vacancies. Any vacancy in the Board of Directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of the Board of Directors may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, though less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. Directors so chosen shall hold office for a term expiring at the next annual meeting of stockholders at which the term of office of the class to which they have been elected expires, and until their respective successors are elected, except in the case of the death, resignation, or removal of any director.



2.7 Resignation. Any director may resign by delivering notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the President, Chief Executive Officer, Chairman of the Board or Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon receipt unless it is specified to be effective at some other time or upon the happening of some other event.
2.8 Removal. A director may be removed from office with cause by the affirmative vote of at least seventy-five percent (75%) of all eligible votes present in person or by proxy at a meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present. If a director is elected by a separate voting group, only the members of that voting group may participate in the vote to remove him. The entire Board of Directors may not be removed except pursuant to the removal of individual directors in accordance with the foregoing provisions. For purposes of this Section 2.8, "cause" is defined as personal dishonesty, incompetence, mental or physical incapacity, breach of fiduciary duty involving personal profit, a failure to perform stated duties, or a violation of any law, rule or regulation (other than a traffic violation or similar routine offense) (based on a conviction for such offense or an opinion of counsel to the corporation that such violation has occurred).
2.9 Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; provided that any director who is absent when such a determination is made shall be given notice of the determination. A regular meeting of the Board of Directors may be held without notice immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of stockholders.
2.10 Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or two or more directors and may be held at any time and place, within or without the State of Delaware.
2.11 Notice of Special Meetings. Notice of any special meeting of directors shall be given to each director by whom it is not waived by the Secretary or by the officer or one of the directors calling the meeting. Notice shall be duly given to each director by (a) giving notice to such director in person or by telephone, electronic transmission or voice message system at least 24 hours in advance of the meeting, (b) sending a facsimile to his last known facsimile number, or delivering written notice by hand to his last known business or home address, at least 24 hours in advance of the meeting, or (c) mailing written notice to his last known business or home address at least three days in advance of the meeting. A notice or waiver of notice of a meeting of the Board of Directors need not specify the purposes of the meeting. Unless otherwise indicated in the notice thereof, any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting.
2.12 Participation in Meetings by Telephone Conference Calls or Other Methods of Communication. Directors or any members of any committee designated by the directors may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

2.13 Quorum; Action at a Meeting. A majority of the directors at any time in office shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In the event one or more of the directors shall be disqualified to vote at any meeting, then the required quorum shall be reduced by one for each director so disqualified, provided that in no case shall less than one-third of the number of directors fixed pursuant to this Article II constitute a quorum. If at any meeting of the Board of Directors there shall be less than such a quorum, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting from time to time. Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present shall be regarded as the act of the Board of Directors unless a greater number is required by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation.
2.14 Action by Written Consent. Any action required to be taken at a meeting of the directors of the corporation or any other action which may be taken at a meeting of the directors or of a committee, may be taken without a meeting, if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by all of the directors, or all of the members of the committee, as the case may be. Such consent shall have the same legal effect as a unanimous vote of all the directors or members of the committee. E-mail or other electronic transmission consenting to an action to be taken and transmitted by a director shall be deemed to be written, signed and dated for the purposes of this Section 2.14, provided that any such e-mail or other electronic transmission sets forth or is delivered



with information from which the corporation can determine (i) that the e-mail or other electronic transmission was transmitted by the director and (ii) the date on which such director transmitted such e-mail or other electronic transmission. The date on which such e-mail or other electronic transmission is transmitted shall be deemed to be the date on which such consent was signed by such director.
2.15 Committees. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the corporation, with such lawfully delegated powers and duties as it therefor confers, to serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members of the committee present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors and subject to the provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it. Each such committee shall keep minutes and make such reports as the Board of Directors may from time to time request. Except as the Board of Directors may otherwise determine, any committee may make rules for the conduct of its business, but unless otherwise provided by such rules, its business shall be conducted as nearly as possible in the same manner as is provided in these Bylaws for the Board of Directors.
2.16 Compensation of Directors. Directors may be paid such compensation for their services and such reimbursement for expenses of attendance at meetings as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the corporation or any of its parent or subsidiary corporations in any other capacity and receiving compensation for such service.

2.17 Nomination of Director Candidates.
(a) Nominations for the election of directors at an annual meeting may be made by (i) the Board of Directors or a duly authorized committee thereof or (ii) any stockholder of the corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time of giving the notice provided for in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this Section 2.17, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.17.
(b) All nominations by stockholders must be made pursuant to timely notice given in writing to the Secretary of the corporation. To be timely, a stockholder’s nomination for a director to be elected at an annual meeting must be received at the corporation’s principal executive offices not later than 90 days nor earlier than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting as first specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting (without regard to any postponements or adjournments of such meeting after such notice was first sent), provided, however, that if no annual meeting was held in the previous year or the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more than thirty (30) days or delayed (other than as a result of adjournment) by more than thirty (30) days from the first anniversary of the previous year’s annual meeting, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be received not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the date on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. Each such notice shall set forth (i) as to the stockholder and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made, and any of their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert therewith (each, a “Nominating Person”), the name and address, as they appear on the corporation’s books, of the stockholder who intends to make the nomination and of any other Nominating Person, (ii) the class or series and number of shares of the corporation which are owned beneficially and of record by the stockholder and any other Nominating Person as of the date of the notice, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the corporation in writing within five (5) business days after the record date for voting at the meeting of the class or series and number of shares of the corporation owned beneficially and of record by the stockholder and any other Nominating Person as of the record date for voting at the meeting, (iii) a representation that the stockholder intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the nominee specified in the notice, (iv) the following information regarding the ownership interests of the stockholder and any other Nominating Person, which shall be supplemented in writing by the stockholder not later than ten (10) days after the record date for notice of the meeting to disclose



such interests as of such record date: (A) a description of any Derivative Instrument directly or indirectly owned beneficially by such stockholder or other Nominating Person, and any other direct or indirect opportunity to profit or share in any profit derived from any increase or decrease in the value of shares of the corporation; (B) a description of any proxy, contract, arrangement, understanding, or relationship pursuant to which such stockholder or other Nominating Person has a right to vote any shares of any security of the corporation; (C) a description of any Short Interests in any securities of the corporation directly or indirectly owned beneficially by such stockholder or other Nominating Person; (D) a description of any rights to dividends on the shares of the corporation owned beneficially by such stockholder or other Nominating Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the corporation; (E) a description of any proportionate interest in shares of the corporation or Derivative Instruments held, directly or indirectly, by a general or limited partnership in which such stockholder or other Nominating Person is a general partner or, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns an interest in a general partner; (F) a description of any performance-related fees (other than an asset-based fee) to which such stockholder or other Nominating Person is entitled based on any increase or decrease in the value of shares of the corporation or Derivative Instruments, if any, as of the date of such notice, including, without limitation, any such interests held by members of such stockholder’s or other Nominating Person’s immediate family sharing the same household; (G) a description of any significant equity interests or any Derivative Instruments or Short Interests in any principal competitor of the corporation held by such stockholder or other Nominating Person; and (H) a description of any direct or indirect interest of such stockholder or other Nominating Person in any contract with the corporation, any affiliate of the corporation or any principal competitor of the corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (v) a description of all arrangements or understandings between the stockholder or other Nominating Person and each nominee and any other person or persons (naming such person or persons) pursuant to which the nomination or nominations are to be made by the stockholder, (vi) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three years, and any other material relationships, between or among such stockholder and any other Nominating Person, on the one hand, and each nominee, and his respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert therewith, on the other hand, including, without limitation all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Rule 404 promulgated under Regulation S-K if the stockholder and any Nominating Person, if any, or any affiliate or associate thereof or person acting in concert therewith, were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant, (vii) such other information regarding each nominee as would be required to be included in a proxy statement filed pursuant to the proxy rules of the SEC, had the nominee been nominated, or intended to be nominated, by the Board of Directors, and (viii) the signed consent of each nominee to serve as a director of the corporation if so elected. In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. Notwithstanding the second sentence of this Section 2.17(b), in the event that the number of directors to be elected at an annual meeting is increased and there is no public announcement by the corporation naming the nominees for the additional directorships at least 100 days prior to the one-year anniversary of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting as first specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting (without regard to any postponements or adjournments of such meeting after such notice was first sent), a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 2.17(b) shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for the additional directorships, if it shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the corporation.
(c) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the corporation’s notice of meeting (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or a committee thereof or (ii) by any stockholder who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.17 and who is a stockholder of record at the time such notice is delivered to the Secretary of the corporation. In the event the corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any such stockholder may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be), for election to such position(s) as are specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting, if the stockholder’s notice as required by Section 2.17(a) is delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not earlier than ninety (90) days prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the sixtieth (60th) day prior to such special meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of



Directors to be elected at such meeting. In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
(d) For purposes of these Bylaws, “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed or furnished by the corporation with the SEC pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
(e) Only those persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section shall be eligible for election as directors at any meeting of stockholders. The Chairman of the Board of Directors or Secretary may, if the facts warrant, determine that a notice received by the corporation relating to a nomination proposed to be made does not satisfy the requirements of this Section 2.17 (including if the stockholder does not provide the updated information required under Section 2.17(b) to the corporation within five (5) business days following the record date for the meeting), and if it be so determined, shall so declare and any such nomination shall not be introduced at such meeting of stockholders, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received. The chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination brought before the meeting was made in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section, and, if any nomination is not in compliance with this section (including if the stockholder does not provide the updated information required under Section 2.17(b) to the corporation within five (5) business days following the record date for the meeting), to declare that such defective nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received. Unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual meeting or a special meeting of stockholders of the corporation to present a nomination, such nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the corporation. For purposes of this Section 2.17, to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder (or a reliable reproduction or electronic transmission of the writing) delivered to the corporation prior to the making of such nomination at such meeting by such stockholder stating that such person is authorized to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders.
(f) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.17, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 2.17; provided however, that any references in this Section 2.17 to the Exchange Act or the rules promulgated thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit any requirements applicable to nominations to be considered pursuant to this Section 2.17.
ARTICLE III
OFFICERS
3.1 Enumeration. The officers of the corporation shall consist of a Chief Executive Officer, a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Chief Financial Officer and such other officers with such other titles as the Board of Directors shall determine, including, at the discretion of the Board of Directors, a Chairman of the Board and one or more Vice Presidents and Assistant Secretaries. The Board of Directors may appoint such other officers as it may deem appropriate.
3.2 Election. Officers shall be elected annually by the Board of Directors at its first meeting following the annual meeting of stockholders. Officers may be appointed by the Board of Directors at any other meeting.
3.3 Qualification. No officer need be a stockholder. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person.
3.4 Tenure. Except as otherwise provided by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these Bylaws, each officer shall hold office until his successor is elected and qualified, unless a different term is specified in the vote appointing the officer, or until his earlier death, resignation or removal.
3.5 Resignation and Removal. Any officer may resign by delivering his written resignation to the corporation at its principal office or to the President or Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon receipt unless it is



specified to be effective at some other time or upon the happening of some other event. Any officer elected by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors.
3.6 Chairman of the Board. The Board of Directors may appoint a Chairman of the Board. If the Board of Directors appoints a Chairman of the Board, he shall perform such duties and possess such powers as are assigned to the Chairman by the Board of Directors and these Bylaws. Unless otherwise provided by the Board of Directors, he shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors.
3.7 Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer of the corporation shall, subject to the direction of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and the officers of the corporation. He shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, in the absence or nonexistence of a Chairman of the Board, at all meetings of the Board of Directors. He shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the chief executive officer of a corporation, including general supervision, direction and control of the business and supervision of other officers of the corporation, and shall have such other powers and duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or these Bylaws.
3.8 President. Subject to the direction of the Board of Directors and such supervisory powers as may be given by these Bylaws or the Board of Directors to the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer, if such titles be held by other officers, the President shall have general supervision, direction and control of the business and supervision of other officers of the corporation. Unless otherwise designated by the Board of Directors, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the corporation. The President shall have such other powers and duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or these Bylaws. He shall have power to sign stock certificates, contracts and other instruments of the corporation which are authorized and shall have general supervision and direction of all of the other officers, employees and agents of the corporation, other than the Chairman of the Board and the Chief Executive Officer.
3.9 Vice Presidents. Any Vice President shall perform such duties and possess such powers as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the President may from time to time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the President, the Vice President (or if there shall be more than one, the Vice Presidents in the order determined by the Board of Directors) shall perform the duties of the President and when so performing shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President. The Board of Directors may assign to any Vice President the title of Executive Vice President, Senior Vice President or any other title selected by the Board of Directors.
3.10 Secretary and Assistant Secretaries. The Secretary shall perform such duties and shall have such powers as the Board of Directors or the President may from time to time prescribe. In addition, the Secretary shall perform such duties and have such powers as are set forth in these Bylaws and as are incident to the office of the Secretary, including, without limitation, the duty and power to give notices of all meetings of stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, to keep a record of the proceedings of all meetings of stockholders and the Board of Directors, to maintain a stock ledger and prepare lists of stockholders and their addresses as required, to be custodian of corporate records and the corporate seal and to affix and attest to the same on documents.
Any Assistant Secretary shall perform such duties and possess such powers as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or the Secretary may from time to time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the Secretary, the Assistant Secretary (or if there shall be more than one, the Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors) shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary.
In the absence of the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary at any meeting of stockholders or directors, the person presiding at the meeting shall designate a temporary secretary to keep a record of the meeting.
3.11 Treasurer. The Treasurer shall perform such duties and have such powers as are incident to the office of treasurer, including without limitation, the duty and power to keep and be responsible for all funds and securities of the corporation, to maintain the financial records of the corporation, to deposit funds of the corporation in depositories as authorized, to disburse such funds as authorized, to make proper accounts of such funds, and to



render as required by the Board of Directors accounts of all such transactions and of the financial condition of the corporation.

3.12 Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall perform such duties and shall have such powers as may from time to time be assigned to the Chief Financial Officer by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the President. Unless otherwise designated by the Board of Directors, the Chief Financial Officer shall be the Treasurer of the corporation.
3.13 Salaries. Officers of the corporation shall be entitled to such salaries, compensation or reimbursement as shall be fixed or allowed from time to time by the Board of Directors.
3.14 Delegation of Authority. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officers or agents, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
ARTICLE IV
CAPITAL STOCK
4.1 Issuance of Stock. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the whole or any part of any unissued balance of the authorized capital stock of the corporation or the whole or any part of any unissued balance of the authorized capital stock of the corporation held in its treasury may be issued, sold, transferred or otherwise disposed of by vote of the Board of Directors in such manner, for such consideration and on such terms as the Board of Directors may determine.
4.2 Stock Certificates. The shares of stock of the corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any class or series of stock of the corporation shall be uncertificated shares; provided, however, that no such resolution shall apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the corporation. Every holder of stock of the corporation represented by certificates, and, upon written request to the corporation’s transfer agent or registrar, any holder of uncertificated shares, shall be entitled to have a certificate, in such form as may be prescribed by law and by the Board of Directors, certifying the number and class of shares of stock owned by such stockholder in the corporation. Each such certificate shall be signed by, or in the name of the corporation by, the Chairman or Vice Chairman, if any, of the Board of Directors, or the President or a Vice President, and the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the corporation. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile.
Each certificate for shares of stock which are subject to any restriction on transfer pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation, the Bylaws, applicable securities laws or any agreement among any number of stockholders or among such holders and the corporation shall have conspicuously noted on the face or back of the certificate either the full text of the restriction or a statement of the existence of such restriction.
4.3 Transfers. Except as otherwise established by rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Directors, and subject to applicable law, shares of stock may be transferred on the books of the corporation: (i) in the case of shares represented by a certificate, by the surrender to the corporation or its transfer agent of the certificate representing such shares properly endorsed or accompanied by a written assignment or power of attorney properly executed, and with such proof of authority or authenticity of signature as the corporation or its transfer agent may reasonably require; and (ii) in the case of uncertificated shares, upon the receipt of proper transfer instructions from the registered owner thereof. Except as may be otherwise required by law, or the Certificate of Incorporation, the corporation shall be entitled to treat the record holder of stock as shown on its books as the owner of such stock for all purposes, including the payment of dividends and the right to vote with respect to such stock, regardless of any transfer, pledge or other disposition of such stock until the shares have been transferred on the books of the corporation in accordance with the requirements of these Bylaws.
4.4 Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates. The corporation may issue a new certificate in place of any previously issued certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, or it may issue uncertificated shares if the shares represented by such certificate have been designated as uncertificated shares in accordance with Section



4.2, upon such terms and conditions as the Board of Directors may prescribe, including the presentation of reasonable evidence of such loss, theft or destruction and the giving of such indemnity as the Board of Directors may require for the protection of the corporation or any transfer agent or registrar.
4.5 Record Dates. The Board of Directors may fix in advance a record date for the determination of the stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders. Such record date shall not precede the date on which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted and shall not be more than 60 nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting.
If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be the close of business on the day before the date on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, the close of business on the day before the date on which the meeting is held.
A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance with the foregoing provisions.
The Board of Directors may fix in advance a record date (a) for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights in respect of any change, concession or exchange of stock, or (b) for the purpose of any other lawful action. Any such record date shall not precede the date on which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted and shall not be more than 60 days prior to the action to which such record date relates. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting when no prior action by the Board of Directors is necessary shall be the date on which the first written consent is expressed. The record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating to such purpose.

ARTICLE V
GENERAL PROVISIONS
5.1 Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be as fixed by the Board of Directors.
5.2 Waiver of Notice. Whenever any notice whatsoever is required to be given by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these Bylaws, a waiver of such notice either in writing signed by the person entitled to such notice or such person’s duly authorized attorney, or by electronic transmission or any other method permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law, whether before, at or after the time stated in such waiver, or the appearance of such person or persons at such meeting in person or by proxy, shall be deemed equivalent to such notice. Neither the business nor the purpose of any meeting need be specified in such a waiver. Attendance at any meeting shall constitute waiver of notice except attendance for the sole purpose of objecting to the timeliness or manner of notice.
5.3 Actions with Respect to Securities of Other Corporations. Except as the Board of Directors may otherwise designate, the Chief Executive Officer or President or any officer of the corporation authorized by the Chief Executive Officer or President shall have the power to vote and otherwise act on behalf of the corporation, in person or by proxy, and may waive notice of, and act as, or appoint any person or persons to act as, proxy or attorney-in-fact to this corporation (with or without power of substitution) at any meeting of stockholders or shareholders (or with respect to any action of stockholders) of any other corporation or organization, the securities of which may be held by this corporation and otherwise to exercise any and all rights and powers that this corporation may possess by reason of this corporation’s ownership of securities in such other corporation or other organization.
5.4 Evidence of Authority. A certificate by the Secretary, or an Assistant Secretary, or a temporary Secretary, as to any action taken by the stockholders, directors, a committee or any officer or representative of the corporation shall as to all persons who rely on the certificate in good faith be conclusive evidence of such action.



5.5 Certificate of Incorporation. All references in these Bylaws to the Certificate of Incorporation shall be deemed to refer to the Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation, as amended and in effect from time to time.
5.6 Severability. Any determination that any provision of these Bylaws is for any reason inapplicable, illegal or ineffective shall not affect or invalidate any other provision of these Bylaws.
5.7 Pronouns. All pronouns used in these Bylaws shall be deemed to refer to the masculine, feminine or neuter, singular or plural, as the identity of the person or persons may require.
5.8 Notices. Except as otherwise specifically provided herein or required by law, all notices required to be given to any stockholder, director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation shall be in writing and may in every instance be effectively given by hand delivery to the recipient thereof, by depositing such notice in the mails, postage paid, or by sending such notice by commercial courier service, or by facsimile or other electronic transmission, provided that notice to stockholders by electronic transmission shall be given in the manner provided in Section 232 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Any such notice shall be addressed to such stockholder, director, officer, employee or agent at his last known address as the same appears on the books of the corporation. The time when such notice shall be deemed to be given shall be the time such notice is received by such stockholder, director, officer, employee or agent, or by any person accepting such notice on behalf of such person, if delivered by hand, facsimile, other electronic transmission or commercial courier service, or the time such notice is dispatched, if delivered through the mails. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively, notice to any stockholder shall be deemed given: (a) if by facsimile, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (b) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (c) if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (i) such posting and (ii) the giving of such separate notice; (d) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder; and (e) if by mail, when deposited in the mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the corporation.
5.9 Reliance Upon Books, Reports and Records. Each director, each member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors, and each officer of the corporation shall, in the performance of his duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books of account or other records of the corporation as provided by law, including reports made to the corporation by any of its officers, by an independent certified public accountant, or by an appraiser selected with reasonable care.
5.10 Time Periods. In applying any provision of these Bylaws which require that an act be done or not done a specified number of days prior to an event or that an act be done during a period of a specified number of days prior to an event, calendar days shall be used, the day of the doing of the act shall be excluded, and the day of the event shall be included.
5.11 Facsimile Signatures. In addition to the provisions for use of facsimile signatures elsewhere specifically authorized in these Bylaws, facsimile signatures of any officer or officers of the corporation may be used whenever and as authorized by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof.
ARTICLE VI
AMENDMENTS

All bylaws of the corporation, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or the stockholders, shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal, and new bylaws may be made, except that:
 
(a)       No bylaws adopted or amended by the stockholders shall be altered or repealed by the Board of Directors.
 
(b)       No bylaws shall be adopted by the Board of Directors which shall require more than a majority of the voting shares for a quorum at a meeting of stockholders, or more than a majority of the votes cast to constitute action by the stockholders, except where higher percentages are required by law; provided, however that (i) if any



bylaw regulating an impending election of directors is adopted or amended or repealed by the Board of Directors, there shall be set forth in the notice of the next meeting of stockholders for the election of directors, the bylaws so adopted or amended or repealed, together with a concise statement of the changes made; and (ii) no amendment, alteration or repeal of this Article VI shall be made except by the stockholders.
ARTICLE VII
INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS
7.1 Right to Indemnification. Each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (“proceeding”), by reason of the fact that he or a person of whom he is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer of the corporation or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, or as a controlling person of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, whether the basis of such proceeding is alleged action in an official capacity as a director or officer, or in any other capacity while serving as a director or officer, shall be indemnified and held harmless by the corporation to the fullest extent authorized by the Delaware General Corporation Law, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than such law permitted the corporation to provide prior to such amendment) against all expenses, liability and loss reasonably incurred or suffered by such person in connection therewith and such indemnification shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer and shall inure to the benefit of his heirs, executors and administrators; provided, that except as provided in Section 7.2 of this Article VII, the corporation shall indemnify any such person seeking indemnity in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person only if (a) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (b) the proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board of Directors, (c) such indemnification is provided by the corporation, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the corporation under the Delaware General Corporation Law, or (d) the proceeding (or part thereof) is brought to establish or enforce a right to indemnification or advancement under an indemnity agreement or any other statute or law or otherwise as required under Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. The rights hereunder shall be contract rights and shall include the right to be paid expenses incurred in defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition; provided, that the payment of such expenses incurred by a director or officer of the corporation in his capacity as a director or officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is tendered by such person while a director or officer, including, without limitation, service to an employee benefit plan) in advance of the final disposition of such proceeding, shall be made only upon delivery to the corporation of an undertaking, by or on behalf of such director or officer, to repay all amounts so advanced if it should be determined ultimately by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal that such director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified under this section or otherwise.
7.2 Right of Claimant to Bring Suit. If a claim under Section 7.1 is not paid in full by the corporation within 60 days after a written claim has been received by the corporation, or 20 days in the case of a claim for advancement of expenses, the claimant may at any time thereafter bring suit against the corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim and, if such suit is not frivolous or brought in bad faith, the claimant shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting such claim. It shall be a defense to any such action (other than an action brought to enforce a claim for expenses incurred in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition where the required undertaking, if any, has been tendered to this corporation) that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct which make it permissible under the Delaware General Corporation Law for the corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed. Neither the failure of the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because he has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law, nor an actual determination by the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct. In any suit brought by the corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal that the indemnitee has not met any applicable



standard for indemnification set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law. In any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, or brought by the corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the burden of proving that the indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, shall be on the corporation.
7.3 Indemnification of Employees and Agents. The corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, grant rights to indemnification, and to the advancement of related expenses, to any employee or agent of the corporation to the fullest extent of the provisions of this Article VII with respect to the indemnification of and advancement of expenses to directors and officers of the corporation.
7.4 Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any person in this Article VII shall not be exclusive of any other right which such persons may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.
7.5 Indemnification Contracts. The Board of Directors is authorized to enter into a contract with any director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or any person serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including employee benefit plans, providing for indemnification rights equivalent to or, if the Board of Directors so determines, greater than, those provided for in this Article VII.
7.6 Insurance. The corporation shall maintain insurance to the extent reasonably available, at its expense, to protect itself and any such director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any such expense, liability or loss, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the Delaware General Corporation Law.

7.7 Effect of Amendment. Any amendment, repeal or modification of any provision of this Article VII shall not adversely affect any right or protection of an indemnitee or his successor in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to such amendment, repeal or modification.


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Exhibit

FIRST AMENDED AND RESTATED
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
OF
OPIANT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
A Delaware Corporation

    
FIRST: The name of the Corporation is: Opiant Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

SECOND: The registered office of the Corporation in the State of Delaware is located at 251 Little Falls Drive, Wilmington, County of New Castle, Delaware 19808. The name of the Corporation’s registered agent of this Corporation in the State of Delaware is Corporation Service Company.
THIRD: The purpose for which the Corporation is formed is to engage in any lawful acts or activities for which corporations may be organized under the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”).

FOURTH: The Corporation is authorized to issue one classes of stock to be designated as common stock, having a par value of $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”). The total number of shares of Common Stock that the Corporation shall have the authority to issue is 200,000,000 shares.

Common Stock.

1.Voting. The holders of the Common Stock shall have voting rights at all meetings of stockholders, each such holder being entitled to one vote for each share thereof held by such holder. There shall be no cumulative voting. The number of authorized shares of Common Stock may be increased or decreased (but not below the number of shares thereof then outstanding) by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the stock of the Corporation entitled to vote, irrespective of the provisions of Section 242(b)(2) of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

2.Dividends. Dividends may be declared and paid on the Common Stock from funds lawfully available therefor as and when determined by the Board of Directors.

3.Liquidation. Upon the dissolution or liquidation of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary, holders of Common Stock will be entitled to receive all assets of the Corporation available for distribution to its stockholders.

FIFTH: Except as otherwise provided in this Certificate of Incorporation, in furtherance and not limitation of the powers conferred by statute, the Board of Directors is expressly authorized to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the Corporation, except any particular Bylaw which is specified as not subject to alteration or repeal by the Board of Directors.




SIXTH: In furtherance of and not in limitation of powers conferred by statute, it is further provided:

1.General Powers of the Board of Directors. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors.

2.Number of Directors. The number of directors of the Corporation shall not be less than three (3) nor more than fifteen (15). The exact number of directors within the limitations specified in the preceding sentence shall be fixed from time to time by, or in the manner provided in, the Corporation's Bylaws.

3.Classes of Directors. The Board of Directors shall be and is divided into three classes: Class I, Class II and Class III. No one class shall have more than one director more than any other class. If a fraction is contained in the quotient arrived at by dividing the designated number of directors by three, then, if such fraction is one-third, the extra director shall be a member of Class I, and if such fraction is two-thirds, one of the extra directors shall be a member of Class I and one of the extra directors shall be a member of Class II, unless otherwise provided from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.

4.Terms of Office. Each director shall serve for a term ending on the date of the third annual meeting following the annual meeting at which such director was elected; provided, that each initial director in Class I shall serve for a term ending on the date of the annual meeting in 2018; each initial director in Class II shall serve for a term ending on the date of the annual meeting in 2019; and each initial director in Class III shall serve for a term ending on the date of the annual meeting in 2020; and provided further, that the term of each director shall be subject to the election and qualification of his successor and to his earlier death, resignation or removal.

5.Allocation of Directors Among Classes in the Event of Increases or Decreases in the Number of Directors. In the event of any increases or decreases in the authorized number of directors, (i) each director then serving as such shall nevertheless continue as a director of the class of which he is a member, and (ii) the newly created or eliminated directorships resulting from such increase or decrease shall be apportioned by the Board of Directors among the three classes of directors so as to ensure that no one class has more than one director more than any other class. To the extent possible, consistent with the foregoing rule, any newly created directorships shall be added to those classes whose terms of office are to expire at the latest dates following such allocation, and any newly eliminated directorships shall be subtracted from those classes whose terms of offices are to expire at the earliest dates following such allocation, unless otherwise provided from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.

6.Quorum; Action at Meeting. A majority of the directors at any time in office shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In the event one or more of the directors shall be disqualified to vote at any meeting, then the required quorum shall be reduced by one for each director so disqualified, provided that in no case shall less than one-third of the number of directors fixed pursuant to this Article Fifth constitute a quorum. If at any meeting of the Board of Directors there shall be less than such a quorum, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting from time



to time. Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present shall be regarded as the act of the Board of Directors unless a greater number is required by law, by the Bylaws of the Corporation or by these Articles of Incorporation.

7.Removal. A director may be removed from office with cause by the affirmative vote of at least seventy-five percent (75%) of all eligible votes present in person or by proxy at a meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present. If a director is elected by a separate voting group, only the members of that voting group may participate in the vote to remove him. The entire Board of Directors may not be removed except pursuant to the removal of individual directors in accordance with the foregoing provisions. For purposes of this Section, "cause" is defined as personal dishonesty, incompetence, mental or physical incapacity, breach of fiduciary duty involving personal profit, a failure to perform stated duties, or a violation of any law, rule or regulation (other than a traffic violation or similar routine offense) (based on a conviction for such offense or an opinion of counsel to the corporation that such violation has occurred).

8.Vacancies. Any vacancy in the Board of Directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of the Board of Directors may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, though less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. Directors so chosen shall hold office for a term expiring at the next annual meeting of stockholders at which the term of office of the class to which they have been elected expires, and until their respective successors are elected, except in the case of the death, resignation, or removal of any director.

SEVENTH: The Corporation shall, to the fullest extent permitted by, and in accordance with the provisions of, the DGCL, indemnify each director or officer or employee of the Corporation against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, taxes, fines and amounts paid in settlement, incurred by him in connection with, and shall advance expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by him in defending, any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding (whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative) to which he is, or is threatened to be made, a party by reason of the fact that he is or was a director or officer or employee of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, partner, employee or agent of another domestic or foreign corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise. Advancement of expenses shall be made upon receipt of an undertaking, with such security, if any, as the Board of Directors or stockholders may reasonably require, by or on behalf of the person seeking indemnification to repay amounts advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that he is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized herein.

The indemnification provided for by this Article SEVENTH shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which directors or officers or employees of the Corporation may be entitled under any statute, agreement, by-law or action of the Board of Directors or stockholders of the Corporation, or otherwise, and shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer or employee of the Corporation, and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.




The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, partner, employee or agent of another domestic or foreign corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against any liability asserted against him and incurred by him in such capacity or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or be obligated to indemnify him against such liability under the provisions of this Article VII need not be limited to the power of indemnification of the Corporation under the provisions of Section 145 of the DGCL.

The Corporation shall indemnify each director, officer or employee of the Corporation who is, or is threatened to be made, a party to any threatened pending, or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, including actions by or in the right of the Corporation, by reason of the fact that such director, officer or employee is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a “fiduciary” (as defined by Section 3(21)(A) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) with regard to any employee benefit plan adopted by the Corporation, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), claims, fines, judgments, taxes, causes of action or liability and amounts paid in settlement, actually and reasonably incurred by him in connection with such action or proceeding, unless such expense, claim, fine, judgment, taxes, cause of action, liability or amount arose from his gross negligence, fraud of willful breach of his fiduciary responsibilities under ERISA, except, that with respect to an action by or in the right of the Corporation, indemnification shall be made only against expenses (including attorneys’ fees).

The Corporation shall advance all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by any director, officer or employee in defending any such civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding pending the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding, unless (a) the Board of Directors, by a majority vote of a quorum consisting of directors who were not or are not parties to the action, suit or proceeding concerned, or (b) the stockholders, determined that under the circumstances the person, by his conduct, is not entitled to indemnification because of his gross negligence, fraud or willful breach of his fiduciary responsibilities under ERISA. Advancement of expenses shall be made upon receipt of an undertaking, with such security, if any, as the Board of Directors or stockholders may reasonably require, by or on behalf of the director, officer or employee, to repay such amounts unless it shall ultimately be determined that he is entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized herein.

EIGHTH: A director of the Corporation shall not be personally liable to the Corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derives any improper personal benefit. If the DGCL hereafter is amended to further eliminate or limit the liability of a director, then a director of the Corporation, in addition to the circumstances in which a director is not personally liable as set forth in the preceding sentence, shall be relieved of liability to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as amended. Any repeal



or modification of this Article EIGHTH by the stockholders of the Corporation shall not adversely affect any right of or protection afforded to a director of the Corporation existing at the time of such repeal or modification.

opnt10032017ex41
200,000,000 Authorized Shares, $0.001 Par Value Per Share Common Stock Dr. Roger Crystal, Chief Executive Officer _______________________________ __________________________ Incorporated Under the Laws of the State of Delaware David O'Toole, Secretary OPIANT PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.


 
THE SECURITIES REPRESENTED BY THIS CERTIFICATE HAVE NOT BEEN REGISTERED UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 OR APPLICABLE STATE SECURITIES LAWS. THESE SECURITIES HAVE BEEN ACQUIRED FOR INVESTMENT AND NOT WITH A VIEW TO DISTRIBUTION OR RESALE, AND MAY NOT BE SOLD, MORTGAGED, PLEDGED, HYPOTHECATED OR OTHERWISE TRANSFERRED WITHOUT AN EFFECTIVE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FOR SUCH SECURITIES UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 AND APPLICABLE STATE SECURITIES LAWS, OR AN OPINION OF COUNSEL SATISFACTORY TO THE COMPANY THAT SUCH TRANSFER IS EXEMPT FROM THE REIGSTRATION PROVISIONS OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 AND APPLICABLE STATE SECURITIES LAWS .